this file is intended simply as a list of words and phrases used on other pages of this website whose meaning is a matter of contention or which I2 may use in peculiar ways.

fallacy of shifting referents in mid-sentence

the attempt to conceal an argument within a sentence where two or more uses of a single term do not all have the same referent; for example:

I am; and, I will continue to be long after I cease to exist.

such a statement is meaningful as an attempt to claim that some part of the total human being (I3, the part that 'has' being) will survive the death of the part that will one day cease to exist (I1). the paradoxical flavor of this statement may give the statement a greater rhetorical impact; but, as a rational argument, it is subject to the fallacy of shifting referents in mid-sentence.

I am I

as an expression of the law of identity, this is self-evidently true. as used by mind-brain identity theorists, this statement means 'I, this first person awareness, am I, the seat of awareness (which is the brain or some portion thereof yet to be specified)'. is this statement still self-evidently true? opinions might differ on this point.

field of disciplined inquiry

a field of disciplined inquiry is a domain within the totality of intellectual life that is defined by:

  1. the questions it asks.
  2. the assumptions it makes; for example, assumptions about what constitutes legitimate evidence or valid methodology.
  3. the findings it makes or uses.


parallel zombie universe

the PZU, parallel zombie universe, is (according to academic philosophers) a 'possible world' in which there are people that look, act and talk just like we do --- they are assumed to be molecule for molecule identical to us --- yet they have no subjective experience of any sort, whatsoever. speculations as to what might or might not be happening in that PZU is supposed to tell us something about the humans in this universe who do have subjective experiences.


that which is either problem-solving or problem-creating depending on ones point of view; and, is intended to connote whatever may be suggested by the contraction of 'automatic' and 'problems'.


psychophilosophy - a field of disciplined inquiry defined by:

  1. questions, such as
    1. what is the structure of a human individual?
    2. what is the structure of belief systems the structure of a human individual?
    3. how does it happen that individuals experience change in their viewpoints concerning the structure of a human individual; and, are such changes non-random?
  2. assumptions, such as:
    1. human individuals have a internal structure; and, it is the same for all human individuals.
  3. findings, such as
    1. I2 am


term that includes psychologists, philosophers, neuroscientists, theologists, phenomenologists, metaphysicians, and anyone else who is involved in the field of consciousness studies or whose belief system makes or depends on assumptions about the structure of the human individual.

this definition includes everyone; and, is much broader than the definition of psychophilosophy as a field of inquiry, if we use a restricted definition of inquiry; but, the field includes those who apply its findings, the practical psychophilosopher, the explorer or self-inquirer.

reality types

in vernacular english

in VE, existence and being are pretty much interchangeable; for example:

AskOxford defines existence as 'the fact or state of existing' and defines being as 'existence'.

the American Heritage Dictionary defines existence as 'the fact or state of existing; being' and defines being as 'the state or quality of having existence'.

WordNet 2.1 from Princeton actually returns the same entry for both existence and being: 'being, beingness, existence (the state or fact of existing)' (although secondary entries are different).

it may be objected that these are general purpose dictionaries; but, philosophically specialized dictionaries have adopted the conventions of VE; for example:

the Philosophy Dictionary defines existence as 'instantiation in reality, or actual being' and does not have a separate entry for being.

in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the index listing for being simply refers the user to the article on existence which focuses on trying to uncover the true meaning(s) of 'existence'; but, there are occasional references to existence as a kind of being.

in humanese english, HE

in HE, existence and being are mutually exclusive reality types. 'existence' and cognate terms designate physical existence, the stuff that physicists study -- mass-energy/space-time. 'being' and cognate terms designate any sort of non physical reality that is separate from one's experience of it. thus, a vision of a unicorn is an experienced reality dependent on the experiencer of it.

the fundamental question concerning being is this: is there an non-physical reality independent of one's of experience of it.

thus, for example, we have a concept of 'self' and, although some deny this, an experience of self; but, it remains an open question whether that which is experienced as self or designated by 'self' has being.